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Osteoporosis
Rheumatoid Arthritis
Crohn’s Disease
Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension
Cholesterol
1. Osteoporosis

What is Osteoporosis?

Osteoporosis is known as porous bone, is a disease in which the bone mass and strength of your bone are reduced. As bone become porous, it is weak and easy for fractures during a fall. This is a common disease that the bone loss silently without symptoms. It can be prevented and treated.

Who is at risk for Osteoporosis?

Risk cannot be changed:
Old age
Female gender
Small body size
History of fracture
Risk can be changed:
Calcium and Vitamin D intake
Medication use
Lifestyle
Cigarette smoking
Alcohol intake
 
How is Osteoporosis Treated?

The comprehensive treatment includes proper nutrition, adequate exercise, prevent falls andtherapeutic medications for prevention.

The common medications by mouth are:
 

  • Calcium and Vitamin D – Vitamin D helps the absorption of calcium and support the strength of the muscles

  • Bisphosphonates – prevent the loss of the bone
  • 3. Estrogen replacement therapy – conserve bone mass in post-menopausal women
  • References
     

  • - National Institute of Health Osteoporosis and Related Bone Disease:

  • https://www.bones.nih.gov/health-info/bone/osteoporosis
  • - National Osteoporosis foundation: https://www.nof.org/patients/what-is-osteoporosis/
  •  
  • 2. Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA)
  • What is Rheumatoid Arthritis?
  •  
  • Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) is a disease that affects your joint that cause pain, swelling and stiffness. This is autoimmune disease in which your body’s immune system which attacks the foreign substances such as bacteria and virus is now attacking the tissue supporting your joints. This disease occurs on more than one joints oftentimes on body side of the body. It is most commonly seen in women and older patients. You may feel sick and tired with this disease.
  •  

  • What Causes Rheumatoid Arthritis?
     
  • The exact cause of RA is still under research by the scientist. Some factors that might be involved such as gene inherited from the family, infections picked up from the environment or female gender is at higher risk than male.
     
  • How is Rheumatoid Arthritis treated?
     

  • The treatment goal of RA is to relieve the pain, reduce swelling and slow down the joint
  • damage. Most commonly used medications are:

  • 1. Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) – reduce the inflammation, the amount

  • of swelling, and relief pain.

  • 2. Corticosteroids – reduce inflammation, swelling and relief pain.

  • 3. Disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDS) and biologic response modifiers

  • (biologics) – to reduce inflammation, swelling, pain and slow or prevent joint damage by
  • target specific protein in the inflammatory process.
  • References
     

  • - National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and skin disease:

  • https://www.niams.nih.gov/health-topics/rheumatoid-arthritis#tab-overview

  • - Arthritis foundation:

  • https://www.arthritis.org/about-arthritis/types/rheumatoid-arthritis/what-is-
  • rheumatoid-arthritis.php
  •  
  • 3. Crohn’s Disease
  •  
  • What is Crohn’s Disease?
     

  • Crohn’s disease is a chronic, or long-lasting inflammatory disease that causes inflammation,

  • irritation and swelling of your digestive tract. Crohn’s disease can affect any area of the intestinal tract from mouth to anus. It is more commonly affects the lower part of the small intestines. The most common symptoms of
  • Crohn’s disease are diarrhea, cramping, pain in the abdominal area and weight loss. The cause of Crohn’s Disease is unknown. It may be due to abnormal immune reaction of your body, genetically inherited from your family or other environmental causes.
  •  
  • How is Crohn’s Disease treated?
     
  • There’s no cure for Crohn’s disease. Oftentimes doctors treat Crohn’s disease with medicines, bowel rest and surgery to decrease the inflammation of your intestines and prevent flare-up of the symptoms. There’s no real standard of treatment, and treatment choices varies from patient to patient.
     
  • Some of the common medications used:
     

  • 1. Aminosalicylates (5-ASA) – reduce inflammation, prevent relapse and works best in

  • colon.

  • 2. Corticosteroids – available orally and topically to reduce inflammation and suppress the
  • immune system

  • 3. Immunomodulators – suppress the immune system often used in people of whom

  • Aminosalicylates and corticosteroids are not effective

  • 4. Antibiotics – prevent or treat bacterial infection of the GI tract
  • 5. Biologic therapies (biologics) – stop certain proteins in the body that cause inflammation
  • References
     

  • - National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Disease (NIDDK):

  • https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/digestive-diseases/crohns-disease
  • - Crohn’s & Colitis Foundation: http://www.crohnscolitisfoundation.org
  •  
  • 4. Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension (PAH)
  •  
  • What is PAH?
     

  • Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) also known as pulmonary hypertension is high pressure

  • in the blood vessels that carry blood from your heart to your lungs. This increased pressure in

  • the blood vessels of the lungs will make your heart work harder to pump blood into the lungs.

  • The common symptoms as shortness of breath, chest pain, and lightheadedness. If left
  • untreated then it will cause damage to the heart.
  •  
  • What Causes PAH?
     

  • Pulmonary arterial hypertension can be caused by your inherited gene from the family or other

  • medical conditions such as left heart disease, sickle cell disease, pulmonary embolus, venous
  • thromboembolism, or COPD.
  •  
  • How is PAH treated?
     

  • There is no cure for PAH. Treatment plan will vary based on the cause of PAH. Oftentimes,

  • doctors may recommend healthy lifestyle change, or medications that aimed to prevent the
  • symptoms from getting worse.
  • References
     

  • - National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute:

  • https://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health-topics/pulmonary-hypertension

  • https://phassociation.org/patients/aboutph/- Pulmonary Hypertension Association:
  • 5. Cholesterol (high cholesterol)
  • What is cholesterol?
     

  • Cholesterol is a substance that your body need to build cells but too much of cholesterol will

  • cause health problem. Cholesterol comes from two sources. Your body makes all the

  • cholesterol that you need from the liver then the remainder coming from the food that you eat.

  • Hyperglycemia is a condition there are high amount of cholesterol in the blood. If untreated

  • these cholesterols will build-up in the blood vessel and increase your risk for stroke and heart
  • diseases.
  •  
  • What cause high cholesterol?

  • The common cause of high cholesterol is an unhealthy lifestyle. The genes that we inherited
  • from the family, other medical conditions and medications may also cause high cholesterol.
  • References
     

  • - National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute:

  • https://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health-topics/high-blood-cholesterol

  • - American Heart Association
  • https://www.heart.org/en